2020 BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe Press Kits

Press Kit Contents

The New 2020 BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe

  • 3.0 liter 6-cylinder 840i and 840i xDrive with 335 hp and 368 lb-ft torque.
  • 4.4 liter 8-cylinder M850i xDrive with 523 hp and 553 lb-ft torque.
  • Production to begin July 2019. Market Launch September 2019.
  • Pricing from $84,900 plus $995 Destination for the 840i Gran Coupe.
Woodcliff Lake, NJ – June 18, 2019…Today, BMW is pleased to announce the new four-door 2020 8 Series Gran Coupes. Available in rear-wheel drive 840i, all-wheel drive 840i xDrive and M850i xDrive models, the new Gran Coupes offer the unmatched combination of beautiful design, luxurious appointments, the latest driver assistance systems, connectivity and sports car performance expected from the top of the line of BMW automobiles.

Presenting a unique design from the windscreen back, the new BMW 8 Series Gran Coupes are 9.0 inches longer, 1.2 inches wider, 2.2 inches taller than the 8 Series Coupe feature a wheelbase which is 7.9 inches longer. Handcrafted exterior elements confirm the new 8 Series Gran Coupe as the choice for those discriminating drivers seeking modern elegance and exhilarating performance.

Prices start at $84,900 for the new 2020 840i Gran Coupe, $87,800 for the 840i xDrive Gran Coupe and $108,900 for the M850i xDrive Gran Coupe. Pricing does not include $995 Destination.

Exterior design
The new BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe, irrespective of engine choice, offers a stunning and powerful sweeping four-door body with wide flanks and sharp creased modern lines. In fact, with a rear track of 65.8 inches (1.2 inches wider than the 8 Series Coupe) the 8 Series Gran Coupe stands on the widest rear track of any BMW automobile; a design criteria which required an update of the Plant Dingolfing assembly line in order to accommodate the new, wider platform.

From the a-pillar back, the 8 Series Gran Coupe design differs from that of the Coupe to both increase interior space and deliver a vehicle with strong presence and authority. The windshield features less rake than in the Coupe to allow the roofline to raise to a higher point above the front seats, providing increased headroom for both front and rear passengers. The roof then merges into the rear trunk lid with fin-like transitional lines to create the visual of a long and flowing body. The rear glass is mounted with increased rake to increase the size of the trunk opening and also acts to from a fixed part of the body’s structure to increase torsional rigidity and reduce noise entering the cabin. The subtle flying buttress design of the rear glass surround requires that the finishing folds of the metalwork be done by hand, a unique feature of the 8 Series Gran Coupe that allows for a truly elegant design to be delivered to each and every owner.

The standard panoramic glass moonroof stretches from the front windshield all the way back to the rear window, flooding the cabin with light. The multi-functional antenna is integrated into the rear glass, eliminating the need for the roof-mounted shark fin antenna and allowing the new larger glass roof. From Nov. 2019 production, the M850i xDrive Gran Coupe will offer an optional Carbon Fiber roof which replaces the glass moonroof and lowers both the weight and center of gravity of the Gran Coupe to further improve handling and performance.

Standard Icon Adaptive LED Headlights with Laserlight flank the one piece hexagonal BMW kidney grille surround which frames active air intake slats inside. Large openings in either side of the front bumper give the low-slung front end of the BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe an aggressive appearance. Functional Air Breathers let air flow through the front fenders improving both aerodynamics and styling. The Hofmeister kink in the expansive c-pillar ties the flowing side profile lines of the new Gran Coupe to heavily sculptures rear fenders and trunk lid. Slim LED rear lights stand high above trapezoidal twin exhaust pipes.

An intelligent mix of lightweight materials helps to reduce weight in the BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe. Aluminum construction is used for the doors, hood, roof, front bulkhead, engine subframe and rear bumper support. The trunk lid is made from dent-resistant plastic while the cabin dashboard support is made from magnesium and parts of the center driveline tunnel are made from carbon-fiber reinforced plastic.

Interior design
The BMW 8 Series’ blend of sporting flair and luxury can now be enjoyed from all five available seats in the new Gran Coupe. The longer wheelbase and wider rear flanks of the sleek 8 Series Gran Coupe have allowed for sizable increases in interior space. Front head room increases by 0.2 inches while rear headroom is up by 3.4 inches. Rear legroom increases by a substantial 7.1 inches while rear shoulder room improves by 7.7 inches. The trunk gains 0.7 cu. ft of room.

The welcoming interior features touches such as Nappa leather on the dashboard and upper door panels, electroplated air vent surrounds and door trim and quilting and decorative stitching on the seating surfaces. The extended center console in the 8 Series Gran Coupe is unique to the model and continues into the rear space, dividing the individually-styled right and left seats while still allowing for the rear center seat space to be used when needed. The rear console offers passengers individual right and left climate controls, air vents, storage tray and USB-C ports.

The standard heated front sport seats feature integrated headrests and are designed with a thinner profile to allow for greater rear knee space. All four main seats offer generous levels of lateral support so that the performance capabilities of the 8 Series Gran Coupe can be enjoyed by all passengers. The rear seats can be folded down in a 40:20:40 configuration allowing for any variation of passengers and cargo on both short and long trips.

The standard ambient light feature emphasizes the forward-pointing lines inside the car to striking effect. Indirect illumination of the contour lines running along the center console and the door shoulders using precisely positioned LED optical fibers creates an exclusive mood.

Paints finishes and interior trim
Standard paint finishes on the new 8 Series Gran Coupe include non-metallic Alpine White and metallic finishes in Carbon Black (when the M Sport package is selected), Black Sapphire (840i and 840i xDrive only), Mineral White, Sonic Speed Blue, Sunset Orange, Bluestone (840i and 840i xDrive only), Blue Ridge Mountain (840i and 840i xDrive only) and Barcelona Blue (840i and 840i xDrive only).

Optional Individual paint finishes include Dravit Grey Metallic, Tanzanite Blue II Metallic, Aventurin Red Metallic and Frozen Bluestone Metallic.

The 840i and 840i xDrive Gran Coupes feature standard Vernasca leather in either Black, Ivory White or Cognac. Optional on these two models and standard on the M850i xDrive Gran Coupe is Individual Extended Merino Leather in Black Ivory White, Cognac and two-tone Night Blue/Black, Tartufo/Black and Fiona Red/Black.
BMW Individual Full Merino leather is optional on all three Gran Coupe models and includes Black, Cognac, Ivory White, Ivory White/Night Blue, Ivory White/Tartufo, Night Blue/Black, Tartufo/Black and Fiona Red/Black.

6-cylinder Power and performance
The BMW 840i and 840i xDrive Gran Coupe models are powered by the latest iteration of BMW’s TwinPower 3.0 liter inline 6-cylinder Turbo engine. Weighing 13 lbs less than its predecessor, the new engine produces 335 hp between 5,000 – 6,500 rpm and 368 lb-ft of torque between 1,600 – 4,500 rpm. This allows the rear-wheel drive 840i Gran Coupe to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.9 seconds while the added traction of BMW xDrive allows the 840i xDrive Gran Coupe to reach 60 mph in 4.6 seconds. Both vehicles feature an electronically limited top speed of 130 mph when equipped with all-season tires and 155 mph when equipped with performance tires.

The new 6-cylinder engine features an exhaust manifold integrated into the cylinder head, a twin-scroll turbocharger with quicker response and direct injection technology working at an increased maximum pressure of 350 bar. A housing with improved flow characteristics and turbines with reduced masses both help the turbocharging system to ensure rapid build-up of pressure, and the charge air cooler has been incorporated into the intake system. The latest version of the VALVETRONIC fully variable valve timing system makes the sort of swift, high-precision adjustments that facilitate instantaneous power delivery and improve engine efficiency. The exhaust manifold embedded in the cylinder head cooling jacket, the new oil module with integral heat exchanger and the split-cooling valve delivering on-demand control of the cooling system all serve to optimize the engine’s temperature management. Efficiency is given a further boost by the low-friction belt drive and the reduced weight of both the crankshaft and oil pump.

V8 Power and performance
The BMW M850i xDrive Gran Coupe is powered by the latest generation of the BMW TwinPower 4.4-liter eight-cylinder Turbo engine. Power production is rated at 523 hp between 5,500 – 6,000 rpm and 553 lb-ft of torque between 1,800 – 4,600 rpm which allow this model to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 3.7 seconds. The top speed is electronically limited to 130 mph when equipped with all-season tires and 155 mph when equipped with performance tires.

Two twin-scroll turbochargers with charge air cooling located within the V-shaped space between the cylinder banks, High Precision Injection, VALVETRONIC fully variable valve control and Double-VANOS variable camshaft timing all form part of the M Performance TwinPower Turbo technology, whose extensive overhaul has given a substantial boost to maximum power, torque and efficiency.

The new V8 engine serves up an enthralling sound, which is enhanced by the standard flap-controlled sports exhaust system. It boasts a wonderfully versatile character that can also adapt itself to effortlessly relaxed cruising. The Driving Experience Control switch can be used to activate both extremely sporty and distinctly comfort-oriented powertrain settings. In the SPORT and SPORT+ modes, accelerator response as well as the V8 engine’s power delivery and acoustics – which take on a particularly distinctive note in the SPORT+ setting – are all configured for an exhilarating driving experience.

A new aluminium alloy has been used to increase the strength of the engine block. The wire-arc sprayed iron coating for the cylinder walls serves to reduce frictional losses. Reinforced, Grafal-coated pistons and optimized piston rings are designed to endure the stress on the crank drive that comes with the extra output and torque. To enhance engine smoothness, torsional vibration is minimized with the help of a viscous damper on the crankshaft.

Eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission and xDrive all-wheel drive
Both engines transfer power to the driveline through the latest improved version of the Steptronic Sport automatic transmission featuring a weight-reducing design, a newly developed controller and a wider gear ratio spread. The eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission now shifts gear more sharply courtesy of an optimized hydraulics control unit. A new generation of torsion dampers that reduce rotational forces within the powertrain help improve both driving comfort and shift smoothness. Integral twin-damper systems for isolating vibrations reduce the degree of slip at the torque converter lock-up clutch.

Shift paddles on the steering wheel are included as standard for manual gear selection, while a Launch Control function allows for accelerating from a standing start with maximum available traction.

The eight-speed Steptronic Sport transmission’s controller can adapt its shift parameters to the current driving situation through intelligent networking with the standard Navigation system, enabling it to take the planned route into account. Navigation data is used to downshift early, for example, when approaching an intersection in order to use engine braking to slow the car down. Likewise, the intelligent controller is able to avoid unnecessary gear shifts between two corners that follow in quick succession, making it possible to drive through at a quicker pace.

In the 840i xDrive and M850i xDrive Gran Coupe models, the BMW xDrive intelligent all-wheel-drive system features rapid, precise and fully variable distribution of drive torque between the front and rear wheels, maximizing traction and handling stability not just when driving in adverse road conditions, but in performance driving situations as well. Power is split in accordance with demands at all times using an electronically controlled multi-plate clutch that is networked with the powertrain and chassis systems.

To increase the system’s efficiency, all of the drive torque is directed to the rear wheels in situations when all-wheel drive is not needed. The xDrive system’s rear-biased set-up guarantees a driving experience for which BMW sports cars are renowned.

Chassis, Suspension and Steering
The longer and wider platform of the 8 Series Gran Coupe offers great benefits in ride comfort and high speed stability. The front double-wishbone suspension, rear five-link suspension, electromechanical steering and standard Dynamic Damper Control combine to give the driver the ultimate combination of comfort and precise, sport handling. The design principle of the double-wishbone front suspension makes it possible to separate steering and damper functions. As a result, high lateral acceleration forces are possible without compromising ride comfort. The car’s steering remains largely unaffected by disruptive forces caused by irregularities in the road surface. Thanks to bi-elastic bushings, the five-link rear suspension guarantees precise wheel guidance and the highest degree of directional stability. In addition, effective isolation of the powertrain and suspension improves interior acoustic comfort.

Integral Active Steering is standard on the 840i xDrive and M850i xDrive Gran Coupe models and optional on the 840i Gran Coupe. Integral Active Steering reduces the car’s turning circle when maneuvering, increases agility at moderate speeds and optimizes stability when changing lanes and cornering at high speeds. The system combines the electromechanical steering of the front wheels (including Servotronic function for speed-sensitive power assistance) and the variable steering ratio in the rear axle steering.

Wheels and Tires
The 6-cylinder 840i and 840i xDrive Gran Coupe models come standard with 18-inch V-spoke Style 642 wheels with 245/45R18 front and 275/40R18 rear all-season runflat tires. Optional on these two models are 19-inch wheels with 245/40R19 front and 275/35R19 rear all-season or performance run-flat tires, 20-inch wheels with 245/35R20 front and 275/30R20 rear performance run-flat tires.

The M850i xDrive Gran Coupe is equipped with standard 20-inch V-spoke cerium grey wheels with 245/35R20 and 275/30R20 performance run-flat tires. Non-runflat 20-inch tires can also be specified on the M Performance model as can 19-inch wheels with 245/40R19 front and 275/35R19 rear all-season run-flat tires.

M Sport brakes are standard on the M850i xDrive Gran Coupe and optional on the 840i and 840i xDrive Gran Coupe models.

Driver Assistance Systems
The 2020 BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe is available with a wide variety of standard and optional driver assistance systems. The systems really come into their own when driving longer distances by relieving the strain on the driver in monotonous situations, such as traffic jams or slow-moving traffic. They enhance comfort and safety both in urban traffic and on longer trips by providing targeted assistance in complex traffic situations. The driver assistance systems process camera images as well as the data gathered by ultrasonic and radar sensors to monitor the vehicle’s surroundings, to warn of potential hazards and to minimise the risk of an accident with corrective braking or steering inputs.

Standard equipment includes Frontal Collision Warning with City Collision Mitigation. Depending on the situation, the system can bring the vehicle to a halt to either avoid a collision or minimize its consequences.

The optional Driving Assistance Professional contains Active Blind Spot Detection, Lane Departure Warning, Surround View Camera, Parking Assistant, Rear Cross Traffic Alert and Speed Limit Information. On top of that, the Driving Assistance Professional offers comprehensive assistance for comfortable and safe driving. This package includes Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go function. It can be used at speeds up to 130 mph and maintains the desired speed while taking not only the traffic situation into account, but also the selected distance to vehicles in front. If required, the system is able to brake the car to a stop then pull away again automatically after being stationary for up to 30 seconds, meaning greater comfort in stop-start traffic. Camera images and data from a front radar system are used for distance control.

Another component of the Driving Assistance Professional Package is the Lane Keeping Assistant with Active Side Collision Protection. This system is designed to help the driver guide the vehicle back onto the correct path with an active turn of the steering wheel. Besides emitting visual warning signals and causing the steering wheel to vibrate, active side collision protection also uses active steering intervention to help avoid a collision. Moreover, this package includes Extended Traffic Jam Assistant for limited access highways, which allows for even more relaxed driving at speeds lower than 40 mph during highly congested highway traffic situations. The Driving Assistance Professional Package includes Evasion Aid, which now also reacts to pedestrians and Front Cross Traffic Alert – which reduces the danger of a collision when maneuvering forwards towards roads that are obstructed from the driver’s view.

The latest-generation Head-Up Display.
The latest generation of the BMW Head-Up display system features a larger projection area, optimized graphics and additional content. The BMW Head-Up Display projects information directly into the driver’s field of vision where it can be viewed without any need for them to divert their eyes from the road. This includes details of vehicle speed, speed limits and overtaking restrictions, Check Control messages, status indicators and warnings from the assistance systems, detailed route guidance and turn instructions, as well as telephone and entertainment lists. The displayed information and style can be adjusted via the new M mode button on the center console.

Live Cockpit Professional with iDrive 7
The BMW Live Cockpit Professional in the 2020 BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe combines the latest-generation of the iDrive, featuring a high-resolution digital 12.3” instrument cluster display behind the steering wheel and a 10.25” center display diagonally across.

The system offers many hardware upgrades including new haptic controls on the iDrive controller, an advanced tablet-like touch interface, and stunning visualizations. The multi-modal approach of the iDrive touch controller, large touchscreen center display, cloud-based voice control, and gesture control allow users to interact in the way of their choosing.

Elements of the BMW Live Cockpit Professional are the Navigation Professional system, two USB ports plus Bluetooth interfaces. The driver can be automatically detected and personal settings activated either using the traditional vehicle key or by downloading the driver’s personal settings to the BMW Cloud.

BMW Connected: digital services for individual mobility.
BMW Connected is the companion app for BMW drivers. Intelligent connectivity helps users to reach their destination easily and with minimal stress – and not only from within their car; BMW Connected is an all-embracing concept designed to seamlessly connect the driver and their smartphone with their vehicle.

At the heart of it all is the Open Mobility Cloud, which allows the app to connect the car with the customer’s digital devices. These could include the iPhone and Apple Watch, smartphones and smartwatches running the Android operating system, Alexa-compatible smart devices and Google Home. For instance, the BMW Connected app can import appointments and addresses from the customer’s calendar entries straight into the navigation system to begin route guidance. The system calculates the optimum departure time based on real-time traffic information and notifies the driver with a message on their smartphone when it is time to leave. As the vehicle is linked up via the Open Mobility Cloud, it is able to access the calculated route directly when the navigation system starts up.

Standard Equipment
The 840i and 840i xDrive Gran Coupe models come with an extensive list of standard equipment including:
  • Active Guard and Active Protection – Automatic seat belt tensioning, automatic closing of windows, fatigue and focus alert, post-crash braking and Frontal Collision Warning with City Collision Mitigation
  • Steptronic Sport Automatic Transmission
  • Live Cockpit Professional with iDrive 7 with Apple CarPlay compatibility
  • 18-inch V-Spoke Style 642 wheels with all-season tires run-flat tires
  • Remote engine start
  • Dynamic Damper Control
  • M Sport Differential (840i only)
  • Integral Active Steering (840i xDrive only)
  • Comfort Access Keyless entry and Soft-close automatic doors
  • Panoramic moonroof
  • Heated Sport seats, armrest and steering wheel
  • Nappa leather instrument panel finish
  • Head-Up display
  • Icon Adaptive LED headlights with BMW Laserlight
  • 464 watt, 16-speaker Harman-Kardon surround sound audio system
  • SiriusXM satellite radio with 1year All Access subscription
  • Wireless Charging and WiFi Hotspot

M850i xDrive Gran Coupe adds:
  • 20-inch M V-Spoke Style 728M wheels with performance run-flat tires
  • M Sport brakes
  • M Sport Differential
  • Integral Active Steering
  • Adaptive M Suspension
  • M Sport exhaust system
  • Active Roll Stabilization
  • Multi-function front ventilated seats
  • M Steering wheel
  • Aerodynamic kit
  • Shadowline exterior trim
  • Anthracite headliner

Optional equipment
Packages include:
  • Driving Assistance Professional Package – (includes Driving Assistant Package) Extended Traffic Jam Assistant for limited access highways, Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go, Extended Frontal Collision Warning & Mitigation with full braking, Active Blind Spot Protection with steering, Active Lane Keeping Assist with Side-Collision Avoidance, Evasion Aid including pedestrians, Junction/Intersection warning and Emergency Stop Assistant.
  • Driving Assistance Package – Parking Assistant Plus, Drive Recorder, Surround View 3D Camera, Active Park Distance Control, Active Driving Assistant, Blind Spot Detection and Lane Departure Warning.
  • Driving Assistance Package 2 – Park Distance Control, Active Driving Assistant, Blind Spot Detection and Lane Departure Warning.
  • M Sport Package (840i and 840i xDrive only) – choice of 19-inch wheels with all-season or performance run-flat tires or 20-inch wheels with performance run-flat tires, Multi-functional seats, choice of interior trim, M steering wheel, Aerodynamic kit, Shadowline exterior trim, choice of Anthracite headliner or Alcantara headliner in interior color, Black Merino leather with M piping and extended leather content or choice of Individual Extended Merino leather or Full Merino leather.
  • Comfort Seating Package (all models) – power rear sunshade and rear side-window shades, front ventilated seats (std. on M850i xDrive), Multi-Function seats (std. on M850i xDrive), front and rear heated seats.
  • Cooling and High Performance Tire Package (M850i xDrive only) – 20-inch M V-Spoke jet black wheels with non-run-flat performance tires, Mobility kit, more powerful cooling fan, additional engine oil cooler, extended Shadowline trim.

Stand-alone options include:
  • 1,400 watt, 16-speaker Bowers & Wilkins Diamond Surround Sound System
  • M Carbon Roof (M850i xDrive only. From 11/19 production)
  • Glass Controls
  • Multi-function seats (840i and 840i xDrive only)
  • Carbon Fiber Interior trim (M850i xDrive only. From 11/19 production)
  • Night Vision with pedestrian Detection
  • M Carbon Exterior Package (M850i xDrive only)
  • Anthracite headliner
  • Alcantara headliner in upholstery color
  • Extended Shadowline trim

2020 BMW 8 Series Gran Coupe
    840i 840i xDrive M850i xDrive Gran Coupe
Gran Coupe Gran Coupe
Seats -- 5 5 5
Number of Doors -- 4 4 4
Drive type -- RWD AWD AWD
Length inches 200.2 200.2 200.3
Width inches 76.1 76.1 76.1
Width including mirrors inches 84.1 84.1 84.1
Height inches 55.2 55.2 55.4
Wheelbase inches 119 119 119
Turning radius feet 20.2 20.7 20.7
Ground clearance Inches 4.8 4.8 5
Shoulder width front inches 57.2 57.2 57.2
Shoulder room rear inches 54.6 54.6 54.6
Legroom front inches 42.1 42.1 42.1
Legroom rear inches 36.6 36.6 36.6
Headroom front inches 39.1 39.1 39.1
Headroom rear inches 37 37 37
Trunk volume ft³ 15.5 15.5 15.5
Fuel Tank capacity gallons 18 18 18
Curb weight lbs. 4,262 4,381 4,758
Gross vehicle weight lbs. 5,368 5,467 5,732
Payload lbs. 838 838 838
Engine type   B58B30M1 B58B30M1 N63B44T3
Engine type -- Inline-6 Inline-6 V8
Induction   Turbocharged Turbocharged Turbocharged
Cylinders -- 6 6 8
Valves per cylinder -- 4 4 4
Stroke mm 94.6 94.6 88.3
Bore mm 82 82 89
Displacement cm³ 2,998 2,998 4,395
Compression rate :1 11 11 10.5
Engine power hp 335 335 523
at rpm 1/min 5,000 – 6,500 5,000 – 6,500 5,500 – 6,000
Engine torque ft. lbs. 368 368 553
at rpm 1/min 1,600 – 4,500 1,600 – 4,500 1,800 – 4,600
Fuel type -- gasoline gasoline gasoline
Recommended Fuel   Premium Premium Premium
Engine oil capacity quarts 7.3 7.3 11.7
Output per liter hp/liter 111.7 111.7 119
Transmission type -- GA8L51CZ GA8X51CZ GA8X76DZ
Transmission type -- automatic automatic automatic
Gear ratios 1st gear -- 5.25 5.25 5.5
2nd -- 3.36 3.36 3.52
3rd -- 2.17 2.17 2.2
4th -- 1.72 1.72 1.72
5th -- 1.32 1.32 1.32
6th -- 1 1 1
7th -- 0.82 0.82 0.82
8th -- 0.64 0.64 0.64
Reverse gear -- 3.71 3.71 3.99
Final drive ratio -- 2.93 2.93 2.81
Power-steering type -- EPS EPS EPS
Steering ratio :1 16.3 14.9 14.9
Tires, standard, front -- 245/45R18 A/S 245/45R18 A/S 245/35R20 Perf.
Tires, standard, rear   275/40R18 A/S 275/40R18 A/S 275/30R20 Perf.
Wheels, standard, front / rear inches 8.0 x 18 / 9.0 x 18 8.0 x 18 / 9.0 x 18 8.0 x 20 / 9.0 x 20
Tires, optional, front   245/40R19 245/40R19 245/40R19
Tires, optional, rear   275/35R19 275/35R19 275/35R19
Wheels, optional, front / rear mm 8.0 x 19 / 9.0 x 19 8.0 x 19 / 9.0 x 19 8.0 x 19 / 9.0 x 19
Track, front inches 64.1 64.1 64.1
Rear, track inches 65.8 65.8 65.8
Cx -- 0.3 0.3 0.32
0-60 mph seconds 4.9 4.6 3.7
Top speed (w/perf. tires) mph 130 (155) 130 (155) 155
Fuel Economy, city / hwy mpg tbd tbd tbd